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Антонин Дворжак: Симфония No 9 "Из новия свят," анализ на Джерард Шварц (част 1)

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[Music] doors rock road nine symphonies ix certainly is the most popular and it was extremely popular from the time was premiered it is extraordinary when you think that Dvorak wrote some of his greatest music those few years that he was in New York and in Spillville Iowa the cello concerto the American string quartet and this great Symphony among other works the symphony begins in a kind of melancholy way the cellos play this very soft little theme but it's an introduction like all symphonies from Mozart and Hyde and on they had that slow introduction it starts with a melancholy beautiful soft gesture from the cellos accompanied by the other strings and then all of a sudden a horn has a little almost a fanfare as a couple of notes but it's startling [Music] the introduction then goes to the woodwinds the flute leading with oboes accompanying and bassoons eventually same thing happens very beautiful soft elegant but this time the strings come in fortissimo loud and then the timpani come in the woodwinds answer it's a really extraordinary moment [Music] then you hear this little agitated section of the woodwinds two horns come in playing this theme which eventually will be theme one that's repeated [Music] lesson by a string playing specialty second violins violas [Music] with a timpani solo and we're into the body of the movement and sure enough it begins with those two horns the third and fourth horn playing the first theme what Dvorak does so interestingly is he doesn't take two melodic groups and then repeats it develops it and then recapitulates it no he has many melodies he has so many melodies just throughout the whole piece and he brings them back as I'll show you so it begins with the horns repeated extended by the clarinet and bassoon and then the strings play that melody loud fortissimo then it backs away it starts a crescendo and sure enough the trombones play the melody the extension now is by the strings rather than the clarin ISM bassoons it's all strong it's remarkable [Music] the second theme which certainly sounds like a folk melody of some kind is played by the flute and the oboe [Music] then the second pylons take it over and the cellos and basses take it over then it's somewhat developed so again a little different in symphonic form than were used to because he takes that theme and rather than just moving on he actually develops that theme at that moment [Music] next we have what we considered the third theme it's introduced by the low flute Dvorak also did some remarkable things in terms of instrumentation the use of the flute in this register is unusual and it's poignant and very different sounding than it would be if an oboe plated or a clarinet and I think stroke of genius [Music] violins take over the same material and then cellos and basses come over with the same mature but now they're playing the same tune courtesan we arrived now at the repeat so Raja asks us to repeat the whole beginning many conductors do not do this repeat I'm a great believer in it obviously because Dvorak wrote it but secondarily there is so much material that he has given us so many themes already and development of those seems in small ways that we really need to hear it again as far as I'm concerned and after the repeat we have this third theme this time it's played as a horn fanfare so it's a completely different sound the horn plays little fanfare and it's echoed by a piccolo solo again a remarkable stroke of orchestration or genius on Dvorak part the trumpet takes over the elbows extended [Music] and then we get the trumpet plate theme 3 and then the trombones play the same thing with the horn playing theme 3 and trombones played the one after this combination again is developed slightly we get to what we consider the recapitulation where we go back to the first theme played by the third and fourth horn and it is pretty clear then the old ball plays it then the flute does the extension the violins played quite loudly and at the end of that it it gets softer and softer and now we have a solo for the for the second flute bringing in again the the second theme and and just in a beautiful soft way and then that gets just extended by all of the woodwinds [Music] the recapitulation continues in an obvious fashion after this development section we make a decrescendo or diminuendo and folk theme comes again played by the second food all of these themes get developed towards the end of the movement and it comes to an end there's very little what we would call filler very little sequential material it's all very direct with these things the way they developed the way they're combined and it the movement goes by and it feels like it takes a minute because it's so remarkable interestingly that he never brings back the opening material from that introduction which is something rare in this case as you'll see as we go through this piece